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Testing & Analysis Technique

Rietveld Refinement

The powerful X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique, the Rietveld Refinement method was originally used for crystal structure analysis. However, this method is presently used to great effect in Quantitative Phase Analysis affording greater precision over traditional quantitative XRD techniques. The Rietveld Refinement method offers:

  • Quantitative Phase Analysis, e.g. crystalline forms of SiO2: Quartz, Tridymite Cristobalite and amorphous silica
  • % Crystallinity for partially crystalline materials, e.g. glassy materials
  • Atomistic resolution for solid solution materials used in key technologies, e.g. electro-ceramics and PbTi1-xSnxO3
  • Unit cell size determination of fundamental material e.g. Zeolites and Hydroxyl-Apatite related bio-ceramics
  • Crystallite size determination from the fundamental parameters approach
  • Global residual strain.

Typical Applications

  • Phase composition determination
  • Characterization of doped cell structures for electro-ceramics
  • Crystallite size analysis of nanopowders
  • Percentage amorphous content of zeolites used as catalysts
  • Residual strain due to solid solution formation
  • Crystallographic response to chromophore doping in ceramic pigments
  • Customized quantification/crystallographic characterization of novel / functional materials.

Typical Industries using XRD

  • Aerospace
  • Automotive
  • Materials
  • Minerals
  • Glass, Ceramics and Refractories
  • Healthcare
  • Medical Devices
  • Semiconductors
  • Electronics.



Rietveld Refinement - At a Glance

  • Information: Chemical composition, crystalline phase, crystallite size doping content and crystallographic position
  • Sample Size: 100 milligrams to 10 grams
  • Detection Limits: ~0.1 wt % or down to 1 atom %
  • Area Analysed: Usually 380mm2
  • Data Output: Diffraction traces, phase tables and depth profiles


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