X-Ray Diffraction (XRD Analysis)
Powder XRD provides detailed information on the crystallographic structure and physical properties of materials and thin films.
The sample is irradiated with a beam of monochromatic x-rays over a variable incident angle range. Interaction with atoms in the sample results in diffracted x-rays when the Bragg equation is satisfied. Resulting spectra are characteristic of chemical composition and phase. The technique uniquely provides phase identification (e.g. graphite or diamond), along with phase quantification, % crystallinity, crystallite size and unit cell size. For layered materials, Grazing Incidence XRD (GIXRD) allows compositional depth profiling of phases within the structure.
- Non-destructive analysis with identification of phase e.g. quartz / cristobalite / tridymite for silica
- Phase quantification, % crystallinity and measurement of crystallite and unit cell size
- Definition of bulk crystal structure including defects and solid solution, using Rietveld Structure Refinement
- Depth profiling of compositional and phase changes within layered materials by Grazing Incidence XRD
- Measurement of layer thickness on the nm scale for highly polished materials using X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR)
- Small area analysis and phase mapping by Micro X-Ray Diffraction (µXRD).
- Phase composition determination
- Characterization of doped cell structures for electroceramics
- Measurement of hard coating composition and structure e.g. carbides, nitrides on machine tools
- Characterization of hydroxyapatite coatings on medical implant materials
- In-depth analysis of silicon wafers, ITO coated glasses and solar cells.
Typical Industries using XRD
- Glass, Ceramics and Refractories
- Medical Devices
Associated Test Methods
- Respirable Crystalline Silica by XRD - MDHS 101:2005
- XRD Analysis of Hydroxyapatite for Medical Applications -
ISO 13779-3 (2008)
Further Information on XRD Techniques
XRD - At a Glance
- Information: Chemical composition, crystalline phase, physical properties
- Sample Size: Up to 150mm diameter and 79mm depth
- Detection Limits: ~0.5 atomic %
- Area Analysed: From 50mm x 50mm to ~300µm x 300µm
- Depth Resolution: <10 nm
- Mapping capability: In an array, with spot sizes >300µm
- Data Output: Diffraction plots, phase tables and depth profiles