Slip Resistance Tests
The Pendulum Test is the preferred method of both the HSE and the UKSRG (UK Slip Resistance Group) in the UK and is designed to simulate the action of a slipping foot. It can be used both on site and in the laboratory. Standards that use the pendulum slip test include BS 7976 (used for pedestrian surfaces), EN 1341 (for external paving) and EN 14231 (natural stone modular tiles).
The Ramp Test is split into DIN 51130 Shod and DIN 51097 Barefoot. This method of testing slip resistance involves test subjects wearing standard soled boots (shod) on an oily floor surface or barefoot on a wet ‘soapy’ floor surface; the floor is then inclined gradually until they slip. The ramp test is useful for measuring slip resistance in industrial areas and in wet areas, such as swimming pools.
The slip resistance tests can be supported by sophisticated roughness and surface profile analysis, and by expert consultation, including expert witness for legal cases.
In addition to assessing the slip resistance of a surface, further tests (chemical and physical surface analysis) are often employed in order to gain a better understanding for the variation in the slip resistant characteristics of a surface over time. Such analysis is typically appropriate in circumstances where a previously low risk surface changes and becomes slippery without an obvious reason.
Analysis of surface topography and chemistry can play an essential role in identifying surface perimeters known to influence the slip resistant characteristics of a surface. Lucideon offers white light interferomtry techniques (3DP) and other microscopy techniques which create high resolution surface maps (resolutions to the nm scale), thus providing an insight into the physical surface characteristics and frictional properties.
Circumstances do not always allow surfaces to be physically removed from situ for laboratory testing; Lucideon has the ability to conduct an on-site, non-destructive replication technique that involves taking a silicone 'negative' of the surface for laboratory analysis.
In situations where surface contamination is suspected, Lucideon is able to offer advanced surface analysis techniques which generate comprehensive surface chemistry data. Spectral ToFSIMS provides detailed molecular information from the outer 1-2nm of a surface and identifies the nature of the contamination. This technique is particularly useful when ascertaining the contamination source and hence establishing an effective cleansing procedure for surface restoration.