Poor wettability leads to variations in the surface wetting and water contact angle.
- Surface contamination
- Surface segregation e.g. bulk-to-surface migration of additive(s)
- Improper surface modification e.g. using corona, plasma or chemical treatments
- Surface topography.
- X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) - to evaluate the chemical composition of the surface including cleanliness evaluation using the Lucideon Cleanliness Index
- Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) - to evaluate the chemical composition of the surface with particular emphasis on organics
- Optical Profilometry - to measure surface topography
- Atomic Force Microscopy - to measure surface topography.