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White Papers

View or download our white papers here.  All white papers are freely available to registered users.

  • Ceramics Additive Manufacturing: A New Opportunity for the UK

    The National Centre for Additive Manufacturing, working in collaboration with Lucideon, has created a white paper which defines a route for the UK to create a globally competitive supply chain to service the growing ceramic AM market. The paper identifies key challenges facing the industry, and offers a number of development areas and opportunities for investment to position the UK at the forefront of this emerging technology.
    Ceramics are arguably the most versatile materials on the planet, featuring in every industry and with a breadth of application covering everything from decorative ornaments and tableware, to technical ceramics for harsh environments found everywhere from down hole oil drilling to earth orbiting satellites and beyond.
    Processing constraints limit further application of ceramics. This is driving growing interest in AM for companies looking to unlock a wider range of uses. Particularly the introduction of new systems designed to produce high-density technical ceramics is beginning to generate publicity that will in turn stimulate interest and ultimately trigger a rapidly growing global market.
    The ceramic AM white paper gives an overview into the ceramic AM technology, adoption challenges, solutions as well as providing a number of industrial case studies. The white paper was written by Dr Tom Wasley, who has been leading NCAMs ceramic AM capability development, industrial engagement and project delivery activities since 2016.

  • Encapsulation of Wastes Using Adapted Geopolymer Formulations

    A geopolymer formulation characterized by a low initial viscosity, suitable to immobilise a wide range of waste types such as oils, chemicals and solid waste, is introduced and characterized. The role of the specific surface area of magnesium oxide additions to the reference formulation is presented. Moreover, its capability to encapsulate different volume fractions of oil via the preparation of oil in activator solution emulsions is introduced. Lastly, the effect of oil incorporation on the density, the mechanical strength and the leaching properties of the compositions is presented and discussed.

  • Wind Turbine Impact Damage Study

    This paper describes a brief explorative investigation into a method to study the likely damage caused to wind turbine blades by impact of hard particles such as hail. There are many published articles on the effects and mechanism of damage on turbine blades but this present study is interested in preventing damage if possible.

  • Lithium-Ion Batteries: Achieving High Performance and Optimal Life-Time at the Cell and Packaging Level

    In this new white paper, Dr Richard Padbury, Senior Commercial Scientist, looks at the challenges relating to materials and processing optimization in Lithium-Ion Batteries.
    He discusses how different material properties influence the performance and properties of the final energy storage device at the cell and battery pack level.  Challenges at the development and processing stages are also considered.

  • Your Metal Component has Failed in Fatigue: What do you do next?

    Fatigue is a major failure mode for metal components, in commercial, industrial and research environments, and can have catastrophic consequences. Understanding the mechanisms behind fatigue failures, and knowing how to handle samples after they have failed in fatigue, is essential for engineers to perform effective analysis.

  • Additive Manufacturing - A Metallurgical Perspective

    In this white paper, we will take a look at Additive Manufacturing from the metallurgical perspective. As with any other manufacturing process, different materials provide different benefits for particular applications. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of AM at each of the three main manufacturing stages: pre-processing, processing and post-processing. We will also discuss some typical component applications that this new manufacturing process is being used for, and all the metallurgical issues involved.

  • Surface Engineering Coating Technology and Characterization of the Surface Region

    Surface engineering, or surface treatment, can be defined as the design of surface composition and substrate together as a functionally graded system to give a cost effective performance enhancement of which neither is capable on its own - or, more simply, as altering the surface for advantage. This includes both physical and chemical treatments, applied coatings, including multilayer coatings, and the chemical and physical characterization of the affected surface zone. In this paper we will review some of the industrial applications of surface engineering and the techniques used to define the topography and chemical composition of the surface and subsurface regions.

  • Digital Image Correlation and its Benefits to Industry

    Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a non-contact, non-interferometric measurement technique that uses high-resolution machine-vision digital cameras to accurately measure surface deformation in two or three dimensions. This measurement is presented graphically in a number of ways such as a 2D strain map overlaying the test specimen, or a 3D displacement map showing the specimen surface and how it moves throughout the test. Early development of this technology began in the mid-1980s in the mechanical engineering department of the University of South Carolina. Since then it has gone on to revolutionize mechanical testing on both the macro and micro scale. The applications of DIC are vast, from eyeball pressure testing to earthquake analysis; this adaptable and highly capable system will transform design, validation and testing methods for anything from dental implants to wind turbines.

  • Solving Problems by Materials Analysis with an Electron Microprobe

    This paper describes how electron microprobe analysis has been used effectively in industrial materials problem solving. Three case studies are briefly presented to illustrate how the unique capabilities of the electron microprobe were used to solve each problem quickly and cost effectively. These examples illustrate how a methodical approach to problem solving, microchemical analyses, and collaboration in a cross-functional team have led to rapid identification of root cause, and successful recovery from difficult situations. Finally, guidelines are offered on some points to consider when facing problems with materials or processes.

  • Analysis of Detrimental Elements for Non-Metallic Materials Used in Nuclear Reactors

    Metals and anions that initiate or accelerate corrosion are of concern in evaluating the suitability of a non-metallic material for use in a nuclear reactor environment. This paper describes several analysis techniques for measuring concentrations of these detrimental elements. Chemical analysis for halogens, sulfur, and low-melting point metals by ASTM D129, E144 and D3761, using oxygen bomb or water leaching preparation with ion chromatography (IC) and inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) optical emission spectroscopy (OES or AES) is described. Some independent testing laboratories are approved for testing materials for use in nuclear safety-related applications. Guidelines are offered for selecting a suitable lab, whose quality and reporting standards must be in compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix B and 10 CFR Part 21 federal requirements.