In this new white paper, Dr Richard Padbury, Senior Commercial Scientist, looks at the challenges relating to materials and processing optimization in Lithium-Ion Batteries.
He discusses how different material properties influence the performance and properties of the final energy storage device at the cell and battery pack level. Challenges at the development and processing stages are also considered.
Fatigue is a major failure mode for metal components, in commercial, industrial and research environments, and can have catastrophic consequences. Understanding the mechanisms behind fatigue failures, and knowing how to handle samples after they have failed in fatigue, is essential for engineers to perform effective analysis.
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as additive layer manufacturing (ALM) or 3D printing (3DP), is a manufacturing method with significant potential but a number of issues. It has been earmarked as the next industrial revolution and has already found some specific industry applications. AM involves three dimensional structures being built up one layer at a time. Each layer is melted to fuse powder particles together before the next layer is applied. This is repeated to continuously build a three dimensional product.
Surface engineering, or surface treatment, can be defined as the design of surface composition and substrate together as a functionally graded system to give a cost effective performance enhancement of which neither is capable on its own - or, more simply, as altering the surface for advantage. This includes both physical and chemical treatments, applied coatings, including multilayer coatings, and the chemical and physical characterization of the affected surface zone. In this paper we will review some of the industrial applications of surface engineering and the techniques used to define the topography and chemical composition of the surface and subsurface regions.
Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a non-contact, non-interferometric measurement technique that uses high-resolution machine-vision digital cameras to accurately measure surface deformation in two or three dimensions. This measurement is presented graphically in a number of ways such as a 2D strain map overlaying the test specimen, or a 3D displacement map showing the specimen surface and how it moves throughout the test. Early development of this technology began in the mid-1980s in the mechanical engineering department of the University of South Carolina. Since then it has gone on to revolutionize mechanical testing on both the macro and micro scale. The applications of DIC are vast, from eyeball pressure testing to earthquake analysis; this adaptable and highly capable system will transform design, validation and testing methods for anything from dental implants to wind turbines.
Metals and anions that initiate or accelerate corrosion are of concern in evaluating the suitability of a non-metallic material for use in a nuclear reactor environment. This paper describes several analysis techniques for measuring concentrations of these detrimental elements. Chemical analysis for halogens, sulfur, and low-melting point metals by ASTM D129, E144 and D3761, using oxygen bomb or water leaching preparation with ion chromatography (IC) and inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) optical emission spectroscopy (OES or AES) is described. Some independent testing laboratories are approved for testing materials for use in nuclear safety-related applications. Guidelines are offered for selecting a suitable lab, whose quality and reporting standards must be in compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix B and 10 CFR Part 21 federal requirements.