White Papers

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  • Abuse Deterrence for the Pharmaceutical Market

    The CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention) now considers prescription drug abuse in the US an epidemic1. Abuse in these cases can be defined as the intentional misuse of pharmaceuticals to deliver a desirable physiological and psychological effect. These drugs are abused via several known routes, including chemical tampering or crushing followed by insufflation, intravenous intake or via oral abuse, using greater than prescribed doses. Driven by public health, governmental and regulatory bodies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), vast investment has already been made into reduction of abuse and misuse of prescription drugs. The abuse deterrence of prescriptions, particularly in the case of opioids, is a key area of concern and, as a result, a growing market has emerged. This paper will explore the market drivers for abuse deterrence and identify possible solutions.

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  • Technical Paper “Energy Saving: The UK Approach to Insulating the Fabric of Existing Masonry Houses”

    The UK government is committed to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases and has written into law a requirement to reduce emissions by 80% by 2050. Much of UK housing is old. There are some 4 million houses that were built before 1920 in use, many of which are poorly insulated. There have been a number of schemes to improve the situation and which have, for example, seen a big increase in loft insulation. There has also been some improvements in boiler efficiency and the use of photovoltaic panels for energy generation. Probably the greatest challenge is the insulation of the largely solid walls and the government initiated two schemes The Green Deal and the Energy Company Obligation (ECO).
    Abstract author Dr G. Edgell from the Proceedings of the Twelfth North American Masonry Conference

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  • The Role of Controlled Release Fertilisers in Sustainable Crop Growth

    In this paper we will look at how advances are being made to create more effective, controlled fertilisers to meet the global food demand. We will explore the influences driving new fertiliser production, the need to find alternatives to conventional fertilisers and the development of inorganic controlled release fertilisers.
    Global demand for food is rising, putting strain on food production and pushing up food prices. Increased demand is coupled with a reduction in the land available for agriculture putting even more pressure on farmers to increase production.

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  • Lucideon’s Guide to Composites

    Composites are being used more and more in many different industries, thanks to the enhanced properties that are realised from the combining of materials.
    In this guide we will look at what composites are, highlighting their advantages and explaining how they work. We will also consider how to design with composites and how to test composites and components to ensure that they perform to the best of their ability.

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  • Tribology and Testing of Orthopedic Implants

    The orthopaedic implant industry is in a continual state of development, witnessing an explosion of novel materials, designs, and applications. This process is, however, often laced with challenges and articulating joints can present the greatest number of these. The biocompatibility of an orthopaedic implant is essential but, as an increased number of patients outlive the life expectancy of their implant; longevity is becoming a significant clinical problem. Thus, the bio-tribological performance of an implant becomes increasingly relevant.
    Bio-tribology is the study of friction, lubrication and wear as they occur in the human body and, as such, are all important factors to consider in the design of implants. Assessment of an implant covers three areas - mechanical testing, debris analysis and surface analysis. In this paper we will review the key techniques available, focusing on the value of generating a complete picture and an understanding of an orthopaedic implant in terms of how the design, base material or coating behaves under friction and loading.

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  • Measuring the Chemical & Physical Properties of Human Hair Surfaces

    The surface characterisation of hair fibres can deliver important insights into the performance of hair care products and in the development of improved product formulations based on an understanding of the connection between product use and the resulting surface properties of the treated hair fibres. This paper reviews the range of relevant hair properties together with the use of topographical and chemical surface characterisation techniques for their determination. Non-contact white light interferometry and 3D scanning electron microscopy are used to investigate topographical consequences such as scale height and hair damage. These techniques provide statistically based metrology of hair surfaces either parametrically or as quantified 3D images. In addition we describe the application of chemical surface analysis techniques including X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to the determination of chemical residues and natural substrates in terms of material identification, level quantification and spatial distribution. In all cases practical applications are described.

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  • Understanding Materials Choices, their Performance and Selection

    This paper sets out to affirm the value of material characterisation in product and process development activities in technology based industries, whilst sustaining the quality of manufacturing output. A selection of techniques, applications and case studies, relevant to a wide range of industry sectors are covered.
    The progress in materials development and application in almost every area of business and industry over the last 25 years has been revolutionary and is continuing to accelerate. Never before have so many material-driven innovations enabled the global spread of technology and improvements in capability, from communications to aerospace and healthcare, to agriculture and automotive.
    Central to this progress has been the improvement in our ability to define materials in terms of their composition, structure and performance evaluation. Together with material design and processing, these have been the bedrock of successful new material applications. Lucideon has participated in this era of materials proliferation for over 50 years. In this review, we will highlight a few of the areas where the characterisation of materials has been crucial to the successful outcomes of client projects.

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  • The Role of Zeta Potential in the Manufacture of Healthcare Materials

    In the manufacture of healthcare products and medical materials, especially ceramic materials like zirconia (used as an implant material) and hydroxyapatite (synthetic bone replacement material), there is often a stage in the manufacturing process involving a powder suspension. The behaviour of this powder suspension will correlate strongly to (a) how well it is processed and therefore (b) final yields and product performance. Surface chemistry dominates the particle-particle interactions in suspension, with different materials having different surface charges. These interactions in turn dictate suspension rheology. Zeta potential is used to investigate and monitor the surface interactions in powder suspensions, and can also be used to optimise the processing method. In a previous white paper, 'The Applications of Zeta Potential in Process Control', the in-depth theory of zeta potential was presented and discussed. This white paper will discuss its applications for the manufacture of certain healthcare materials and how Lucideon has assisted manufacturers in this area.

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  • The Applications of Zeta Potential in Process Control

    Powders play a very important role in many different areas of healthcare, most importantly in dentistry and orthopaedic materials, where they become either coatings or 3D structures. As many powder materials exist as suspensions in the early stages of their manufacturing, powder surface chemistry (and associated charge) can strongly influence suspensions’ rheological properties, and so the quality of subsequent processing. This can have dramatic effects on the quality of any end products and can lead to failure of these products. Given that powder surface charge is so critical, zeta potential becomes a crucial measurement for characterising and then optimising suspension behaviour. Zeta potential is essentially the energy required to shear a particle and associated ions away from a bulk solution. From these values, the stability of the system can be established: whether the particles are well dispersed and stable, or flocculated and unstable. This paper will discuss the theory of zeta potential, and how it can be measured and controlled. The particular advantages of using the ZetaProbe® apparatus available at Lucideon will also be discussed.

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  • Regulatory Approval Testing of Hydroxyapatite - The Benefits of Using One Supplier

    Gaining and maintaining regulatory approval of medical devices and materials, such as Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be a fraught, lengthy and complex process. Submission of data to regulatory bodies, for example the FDA (Food and Drug Administration), has to be credible and fully documented in order to ensure success. Post-regulatory approval testing is also important, not only to confirm that regulatory standards are continuing to be kept but also that consistency, quality and performance are being maintained.
    In this white paper, Gemma Budd, Product Manager – Healthcare at Lucideon, argues the case for using one supplier for regulatory approval testing, using the example of HA testing.

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