White Papers

Browse white papers by

  • Surface Engineering Coating Technology and Characterization of the Surface Region

    Surface engineering, or surface treatment, can be defined as the design of surface composition and substrate together as a functionally graded system to give a cost effective performance enhancement of which neither is capable on its own - or, more simply, as altering the surface for advantage. This includes both physical and chemical treatments, applied coatings, including multilayer coatings, and the chemical and physical characterization of the affected surface zone. In this paper we will review some of the industrial applications of surface engineering and the techniques used to define the topography and chemical composition of the surface and subsurface regions.

    Sign in or register to download this whitepaper

  • Extremity Wear Testing - Total Ankle and Shoulder Replacement Testing

    Wear simulation for implantable knee, hip and intervertebral spinal disc prostheses have all been well documented and standardized tests methods have been created in order to assess the performance of these medical device implants. Despite the fundamental developments in wear testing for hip, knee and spine implants there has been little focus on extremity wear testing for other medical implants. Current knowledge of wear performance in Total Ankle Replacements (TAR) and Total Shoulder Replacements (TSR) is limited which has resulted in the need for more detailed examination of the performance of these implants both under in-vivo conditions and in the laboratory.

    Sign in or register to download this whitepaper

  • Digital Image Correlation and its Benefits to Industry

    Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a non-contact, non-interferometric measurement technique that uses high-resolution machine-vision digital cameras to accurately measure surface deformation in two or three dimensions. This measurement is presented graphically in a number of ways such as a 2D strain map overlaying the test specimen, or a 3D displacement map showing the specimen surface and how it moves throughout the test. Early development of this technology began in the mid-1980s in the mechanical engineering department of the University of South Carolina. Since then it has gone on to revolutionize mechanical testing on both the macro and micro scale. The applications of DIC are vast, from eyeball pressure testing to earthquake analysis; this adaptable and highly capable system will transform design, validation and testing methods for anything from dental implants to wind turbines.

    Sign in or register to download this whitepaper

  • Digital Image Correlation for Construction

    Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a full-field image analysis method which employs high resolution digital cameras to track displacement occurring on the surface of an object. It has gained recognition for the potential that it possesses for a number of industries, not least among them the construction industry. This white paper focuses on potential applications for the construction industry drawing on examples of previous testing applications and highlighting the advantages DIC offers over conventional structural and materials testing methods.

    Sign in or register to download this whitepaper

  • The Applications of Digital Image Correlation Technology in Healthcare

    With increased pressure from regulatory bodies demanding stringent testing throughout the design, validation and manufacturing phases of healthcare product development, test methods are becoming increasingly complex. Digital Image Correlation (DIC), offers in depth analysis, in a simple yet efficient and comprehensive manner.
    Using high powered digital cameras and the latest high-tech software DIC provides visual and quantitative analysis of surface strains of materials and products undergoing stress testing. Highlighting the areas of high strain informs the response of a component under various loading conditions in a non-destructive way, characterizes mechanical behavior and can verify and refine finite element analysis models.

    Sign in or register to download this whitepaper

  • Why Quality By Design?

    The concept of Quality by Design (QbD) is not a new idea but it is only in recent years that it has been considered for all aspects of the development process for pharmaceutical products. Even with this recent growth in interest, it can often be seen an unattractive prospect, for the reasons outlined below, and is not yet considered standard for the development of drugs and pharmaceuticals.
    For those though that have taken the plunge and invested the time in developing analytical methodology for their products using QbD techniques, the advantages are being realized, reinforcing the future of QbD.
    The current success, as applied to analytical test methods, relies heavily on a significant investment in laboratory time during the early stages of a product’s life cycle. For many, spending vital time designing a method from scratch instead of it being developed from a template of a similar product seems too time consuming and counterproductive. The time spent on design does, however, offer many advantages in terms of quality control and understanding of the methodology; this, in itself, provides long-term time and cost advantages.

    Sign in or register to download this whitepaper

  • The Advantages of Including Adverse Event Wear Testing in the Design of Orthopedic Implants

    For decades, total hip and knee replacement surgery has been successful in restoring the normal function of articulating joints. Whether the joint has been damaged through injury or as a result of arthritis, total joint replacements are some of the most common and successful orthopedic surgeries in the world.
    With approximately 160,000 total hip and knee replacements being performed in over 400 hospitals each year in the UK alone, and that number set to rise by 673 percent in the next 20 years, the design of implants, as well as the materials used in them, has become the focus of many large multinational companies. The resulting technological evolution and concurrent influx of innovative devices have increased the demand for both device and materials testing solutions.
    In this white paper we will look at why the testing of implants is so important. Traditional test methods and their limitations will be detailed and adverse event testing, including impingement testing and third body wear testing will be discussed.

    Sign in or register to download this whitepaper

  • Abuse Deterrence for the Pharmaceutical Market

    The CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention) now considers prescription drug abuse in the US an epidemic1. Abuse in these cases can be defined as the intentional misuse of pharmaceuticals to deliver a desirable physiological and psychological effect. These drugs are abused via several known routes, including chemical tampering or crushing followed by insufflation, intravenous intake or via oral abuse, using greater than prescribed doses.
    Driven by public health, governmental and regulatory bodies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), vast investment has already been made into reduction of abuse and misuse of prescription drugs. The abuse deterrence of prescriptions, particularly in the case of opioids, is a key area of concern and, as a result, a growing market has emerged.
    This paper will explore the market drivers for abuse deterrence and identify possible solutions.

    Sign in or register to download this whitepaper

  • Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme (ESOS)

    The EU Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) (2012/27/EU) which was adopted on 25 October 2012 consists of a series of measures which intend to put the EU back on track to meet its target to reduce primary energy consumption by 20% by 2020 (compared to business as usual). The EU directive is mandatory for all member states.
    One key deliverable (Article 8) of EED is for all non-SMEs to have undertaken a mandatory energy audit. In the UK, Article 8 will be satisfied by our Government's ESOS (Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme).
    This white paper discusses what the scheme is, who’s captured and the routes to compliance

    Sign in or register to download this whitepaper

  • The Role of Controlled Release Fertilisers in Sustainable Crop Growth

    In this paper we will look at how advances are being made to create more effective, controlled fertilisers to meet the global food demand. We will explore the influences driving new fertiliser production, the need to find alternatives to conventional fertilisers and the development of inorganic controlled release fertilisers.
    Global demand for food is rising, putting strain on food production and pushing up food prices. Increased demand is coupled with a reduction in the land available for agriculture putting even more pressure on farmers to increase production.

    Sign in or register to download this whitepaper

Got a question?

Contact us here

Register or sign in below to access our resources.


Forgot your password?