Lucideon's experts are often invited to present and speak at many of world's leading science & innovation events. Read our papers & presentations here.
Current thermal conductivity techniques that employ temperature gradients and calorimetry make the assumption that thermal conductivity is independent of temperature. As such the Laplace equation holds for thermal conductive heat transfer across a variety of refractory products. Unshaped refractory and insulation materials were tested using a modified version of the BS 1902 part 5.5 Panel Method to determine the departure from linearity of the temperature profiles of a number of materials; along with the effect of fitting to these profiles to define an integral mean thermal conductivity. These determinations were compared with the results of established calorimetric thermal conductivity techniques. Whilst unshaped refractory materials agreed well with the assumptions made by current methods, insulation materials exhibited marked departure from linearity that upon applying the modifications to the BS 1902 part 5.5 produced significantly lower thermal conductivity results.
Energy Saving: The UK approach to insulating the fabric of existing masonry houses
The UK government is committed to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases and has written into law a requirement to reduce emissions by 80% by 2050. Much of UK housing is old. There are some 4 million houses that were built before 1920 in use, many of which are poorly insulated. There have been a number of schemes to improve the situation and which have, for example, seen a big increase in loft insulation. There has also been some improvements in boiler efficiency and the use of photovoltaic panels for energy generation. Probably the greatest challenge is the insulation of the largely solid walls and the government initiated two schemes The Green Deal and the Energy Company Obligation (ECO). The Green Deal is a programme of loans to encourage the introduction of energy saving measures, the Golden Rule being that the energy savings outweigh the cost of loan repayments. The take up has been low. The Energy Company Obligation is a scheme whereby the energy supply companies undertake to treat the ‘hardest to deal with’ houses. This has been controversial as the costs have been passed on to customers and the scheme is under review. However, there has been a sharp rise in the use of External Wall Insulation (EWI) on existing solid wall constructions and some increase in Internal Wall Insulation (IWI). EWI systems are required to be tested to European Testing Approval Guideline 004 (ETAG 004) in order to be eligible for use in the ECO scheme. There have, however, been lots of examples of poor performance, often workmanship related and there is an underlying issue that there is often a difference in the calculated energy saving of providing the insulation and the actual saving, the Performance Gap. This paper will explore the issues involved and suggest some possible measures to lead to improvements and also some safeguards to ensure there is no unexpected damage to the existing fabric by the use of IWI.
The Introduction of Highly Perforated Clay Blocks to the UK
In the UK clay masonry units are almost exclusively bricks with a standard size of 215mm x 102.5mm x 65mm (length x width x height). On the face of things there is no reason why other sizes cannot be made, the European Standard for clay masonry units was published in the UK in 2003 and covers a wide range of sizes. In 2006 the British Standard which referred to the ‘standard’ size was withdrawn. In central Europe highly vertically perforated clay units have been available in a wide range of sizes for many years and can be used in one or both leaves of cavity construction or in thick monolithic construction. The outer face is usually rendered. In 2009 a major blockmaker launched a range of such blocks onto the UK market. The construction system was new to the UK in that very thin bed joints could be made with fast setting mortar and the cross joints contained interlocking features but no mortar. Although the units themselves are within the scope of the European Standard there was no guidance in UK Codes of Practice as to how to use them and although the Structural Eurocode was published in 2005 and there was some information it was limited and in any case this Code is little used. In March 2010 the British Codes were withdrawn although will continue to be accepted as a means of satisfying UK Building Regulations. In this transition period CERAM produced an independent Design Guide to give the necessary authoritative guidance on the use of this type of masonry. This paper describes the development of the guidance such that architects, engineers and insurers would have the necessary confidence in the system.
Lucideon’s Inorganic Controlled Release Technology (iCRT) platforms overcome oral formulation challenges through fundamental control of the chemical process; resulting microstructures allows drug release to be tailored for purpose. Physical control can remove obstacles associated with bioavailability of small molecules, and allows versatility of the final form. A specific application of iCRT for abuse deterrent formulations will be introduced.
'iCRT-deter; a new approach to abuse deterrent technologies using inorganic matrices for controlled release' presentation for OMICS International World Drug Delivery Summit - Houston, USA - 17 - 19 August 2015
Opioid medications are prone to abuse (either intentionally or accidentally) by patients, and cost the US healthcare system tens of billions of USD$ per year. FDA is putting increasing pressure on manufacturers to reduce the risk of misuse of these drugs by developing “abuse-deterrent formulations”. This, ironically, is slowing the introduction of new, improved medications to patients in need, even though the intention is to improve the patients’ safety. Opioids are the most prominent class of addictive drugs, but other classes of drugs that may benefit from such technologies will also be discussed, for example amphetamines and benzodiazepines. Many of the currently available technologies either provide mechanical or chemical barriers to abuse, and some of the marketed technologies will be highlighted and critiqued.